At Ponder we research, distil, develop, compile, and share practical techniques for complex problem solving.  We do this because we agree with the OECD and the World Economic Forum – complex problem solving is the most important skill we need this century.  And we help people and organisations to apply these techniques to develop strategies to achieve outcomes for the complex challenges they are grappling with.

What Ponder does and why

The 21st Century is throwing us many challenges – from entrenched problems to exciting opportunities.  But the world is complex and our traditional problem-solving and strategy development techniques aren’t adequate any more.  But there isn’t much practical guidance around on what complex problem solving actually entails and that’s a gap we set out to fill.  We make complex problem solving and strategy development very tangible.  We teach practical techniques for understanding and thinking strategically about complex things. And we help people and organisations to apply those techniques to understand and develop outcomes-based strategies for complex issues.

We hope our contribution will be to make it easier to think about, talk about and go about grappling with contemporary challenges, and, to encourage more informed opinions, conversations, strategies and decisions about important issues. It is a contribution that we believe passionately in because, we think that if we all ponder things that matter a bit more, we’ll shape a better future.

About our 20 Questions...

At Ponder, we believe that there is a pattern to the things we need to think about and the things we need to do, when grappling with a complex issue.

We’ve captured that pattern into a collection of very practical techniques for complex problem solving and strategy development. Together they provide a systematic but flexible, rigorous, adaptive and design-oriented approach for grappling with a complex issue.  We call it 20 Questions for complex problem solving and strategy development (and practical techniques to help answer them).

The techniques embed a range of higher-order thinking skills including strategic thinking, systems thinking, analytical thinking, critical thinking, creative thinking, design thinking, structured thinking, and futures thinking.

The techniques are drawn from many disciplines and sectors including engineering design principles, systems theory, theory of strategy, complexity theory, behavioural insights, evidence-based decision making, logical reasoning, and agile development, among others.

We teach these techniques through our seminar and workshop series.  We also help people and organisations apply them to particular issues they are grappling with through our facilitation and consulting services, or, commissioned analysis and reports.  The 20 Questions are given on the 20Q page.


Its not easy to achieve outcomes in a world where things are interconnected in messy, dynamic and often counter-intuitive ways, and where ideas are contested and the future is uncertain.

Often there doesn’t seem to be a ‘right’ answer, and its very easy to waste time and money with very little progress to show for it.  Problems can become entrenched.

Because of the complexity, it becomes easier to defer to partial analysis and view issues through limited lenses, and to focus on political arguments at the expense of nuanced policy deliberation.

This is exacerbated by the 24/7 news cycle, short election cycles, fake news, and information being transmitted in tweets and soundbites.

Many people have called for deeper thinking, less political gossip, more longer-term thinking and considered policy deliberation.  There are compelling speeches, papers, and books which describe at length, but somewhat abstractly and discursively, what could and should be done.

While they are rich in concepts and ideas and frameworks, they lack practical guidance on what, specifically, it is that we should do.  What do we actually need to do, to think more strategically?  What do we need to actually do to deliberate more wisely?

That’s the gap Ponder aims to fill.  There is a pattern to the questions we should ask ourselves when problem-solving is complex and difficult to navigate. We’ve captured that pattern into 20 Questions for complex problem solving and strategy development (and practical techniques to help answer them).  The 20 Questions don’t give you the answers or do the thinking for you, but they remind you of what you need to think about.  They prompt your thinking, and they prompt the discussions that need to be had.

For more information you can read our articles, and, you can visit our 20Q page for more information about the 20 Questions.


Ponder aims to be the leader in the field of complex problem-solving, and to provide the highest quality teaching resources and advice for grappling with complex problems.

Our work is continually refined based on latest research, tried and tested techniques and feedback from others.

We intend for our work to be used by a range of people in official and unofficial capacities, for informing their decisions and opinions, and their approach for strategy development for complex challenges.


Ponder’s 20 Questions for complex problem solving and strategy development (and practical techniques to help answer them) draw on a broad set of skills and techniques from different sectors and disciplines spanning the hard-soft spectrum and the analytical-creative spectrum.  These include the fields of engineering, complexity science, behavioural economics, logical reasoning, learning and adaptive design and many others.

Underpinning all of it however, are three important points.  The first, is a recognition that things are interconnected and dynamic.  There are nested, multiple and mutual (feedback) cause-and-effect relationships everywhere, and these change.  We can think of the world as a ‘system’ (with many sub-systems).  A system has many interconnected parts that produce a certain ‘behaviour’ when they all come to life, a bit like a car’s parts are all interconnected in a certain way so that when they ‘come to life’ they produce a certain behaviour (a moving vehicle that can transport things).  The parts of a system and how they are interconnected is the system ‘structure’.  What the system does when it comes to life is its ‘behaviour’.  When we are designing something, we design the parts and their interconnections so that they produce an outcome (or behaviour) that we want.  Social and policy systems can be thought of in the same way, though there are many more different types of parts, not just mechanical and tangible parts like those of a car).  There are humans and their feelings, incentives, goals and information flows for example.  But the principle remains the same.  All the right parts need to be there and interconnected in a certain way, to give the outcome (system behaviour) that we want.  If we don’t design the ‘system’, then a system will exist anyway, and whatever system is in place, will determine what the resulting outcome or behaviour is.  So that’s Ponder’s first underpinning principle.  We take a systems approach – designing the system structure to give the behaviour we want.

The second point is the recognition that systems change over time. They are dynamic.  They are largely unpredictable, for several reasons – we don’t know how all systems behave, we don’t know in advance the random and chance events that will occur to affect the system, and, the world is very non-linear and sometimes chaotic.  So any strategy to influence the system cannot be simply designed and then implemented.  That’s pretty much guaranteed not to work for complex areas of policy.  Strategies need to be designed iteratively, so they can adapt to things that change and to what we learn along the way about what works and what doesn’t.  It’s not as hard as it sounds.  We just need to recognise it and work with it.

The third point, is that we believe that in order to understand and influence complex things, we require a capacity for higher-level thinking. In her book, The Smartest Kids in the World and How They Got That Way, Amanda Ripley cites critical thinking (or higher-order thinking) as what being ‘smart’ entails. Its not simply the the ability to memorise facts, but more importantly, the ability to do something useful with facts, learning to solve problems, to reason, being able to think for oneself.  She concluded that in the countries who scored amongst the highest in standardised tests for real-world problem solving (Norway, Poland, South Korea), “there was a consensus …that all children had to learn higher-order thinking in order to thrive in the world”. Embedded in Ponder’s 20 Questions are prompts to help us think creatively, critically, strategically, and analytically.  They draw on different thinking techniques such as systems thinking, design thinking, futures thinking and behavioural insights.  They are not the type of skills that are widely taught in many of our educational systems, but we hope one day they will be.


Ponder’s work aims to:

  • inform, offer new insights and prompt new ways of thinking
  • be very high-quality (in research, style and substance)
  • be rigorous and comprehensive in breadth and depth
  • be impartial and balanced
  • be relevant, useful and practical

In our articles, Ponder does not adopt a particular viewpoint, or assume any ideological perspective, rather, we aim to provide the range of viewpoints, the arguments and counterarguments, the trade-offs and the what-ifs.  Ponder asks lots of questions and tries to find answers, to better understand complex issues and then we share that understanding.  The audience is left to form their own opinions, but hopefully with more understanding and insight to draw from.


We think complex problem solving skills are essential, life-long skills for everyone from the most junior analysts to the most senior decision-makers, so we’ve designed our seminars and workshops so that they are inspiring and engaging (and ‘new’) for everyone.

The seminars and workshops are jam-packed with real-world examples, stories and case studies to make the ideas and techniques tangible and practical.

The ideas and techniques can be applied to all kinds of strategy and problem-solving – private and public sector, organisational challenges and policy challenges.



Our clients include people and organisations from the public sector, including Commonwealth and State/Territory government departments as well as NGOs, the university sector and private sector organisations.

Contact us for more information about how we can help build complex problem solving capabilities for you and your staff, or help you develop a strategy to achieve outcomes for the complex challenge you are grappling with.


Ponder hopes to grow!  If what Ponder does resonates with you, then let us know. We’ll contact you if an appropriate opportunity comes up.  You don’t need to be based in Canberra.

Founder's Profile

Jane MacMaster

I started Ponder in 2014 to help improve how we understand and think about complex issues. I worked as a systems design engineer in the aerospace sector for most of my career. That was after a couple of years in management consultancy, and before postgraduate studies in International Relations, which then led me to work in public policy in the strategy unit of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (Australia) for six years.

As an engineer I learnt how to design things that work. At PM&C I learnt about true complexity and where our highest priority challenges lie. I don’t think we are ‘engineering’ solutions to complex challenges to the extent that we could, and should be. ‘Engineer’ after all, simply means to bring something about through careful design.

In my view there is an opportunity to improve how we think about and design strategies, policies and solutions to complex problems (and opportunities), borrowing from engineering and other disciplines and sectors, including importantly, the emerging field of complexity science.

My aim is to help make progress with improving problems and grasping opportunities by thinking more deeply about them using techniques that have been around for years as well as new, emerging ways of understanding the world.

Jane MacMaster

Jane has tertiary qualifications in engineering, international relations and training and assessment. See her LinkedIn profile for more information on her background, qualifications and experience.